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GLOSSARY

Whole plant extraction is a substance made from the hemp plant. It contains a complete composition of cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and waxes, which can then be isolated and broken down into different elements. Also known as full spectrum, whole plant oil contains all the rich and beneficial components of the plant.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the main psychoactive component in the cannabis plant. It’s what makes you feel “high” and alters your perception of reality, but it also has an impact on your sensation of pain, neurological patterns, and more, giving it an important effect on your health.   THC is solid when it’s cold, but when you heat it, it becomes sticky and gloppy. There’s a synthetic version of THC called dronabinol, available through a prescription in the US and Canada under the brand name Marinol.
Terpenes, or terpenoids, are chemical compounds that occur naturally in many plants. They produce a distinct colour and/or odour, alongside their other effects. Pine resin, with its strong smell of pine, carotenoids, with their bright orange, red, and yellow colours, and rubber are all examples of terpenes found in different plants.   Cannabis also produces many different terpenes, which give distinctive smells and flavours to different strains of cannabis. Terpenes work together with cannabinoids to create the many effects and properties of cannabis.
Retrograde signaling is the opposite action to that of other neurotransmitters.   In nerve cells that release soothing Gaba-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), cannabinoids reduce the amount that’s released, stimulating the muscles of the body. In nerve cells that release stimulating Glutamate neurotransmitters (Glu), the cannabinoid inhibits its release, creating a calming effect. In this way, cannabinoids help to keep the stimulating and calming hormones in balance, maintaining a healthy body.
“Raw” is the term used to describe fresh cannabis before it’s been processed and had the relevant chemical compounds extracted and prepared.
When a substance is psychoactive, that means that it has an effect on your brain and your nervous system, without affecting your ability to think or perceptions of reality. Psychoactive substances include opioid-based painkillers, neurological drugs like those used to treat epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease, some hormonal medicines, and a wide range of other medicines including caffeine, sedatives, nicotine, antidepressants, and antibiotics.   CBD is psychoactive as it can affect your mood, perception of pain, or stress levels. But unlike many other psychoactive drugs, it’s non-intoxicating. CBD is a psychoactive substance with a very high safety level, carrying little risk of addiction, dependence, or altered perception of reality.
When we say that CBD oil is non-intoxicating, we mean that it won’t get you high. THC, which is another substance found in cannabis, is intoxicating, and cannabis products that are high in THC are what make you feel “high,” “stoned,” or “buzzed.”   CBD has the big advantage of being psychoactive, so it does have an impact on your mental, physical, and emotional health, but without being intoxicating. That’s what makes it a safe substance that’s legal in many countries.
Neurotransmitters could also be called the chemical messengers of the brain. They transport instructions from the nerve cells in the nervous system to their target cells anywhere in the body, through a synapse. The target cell could be anything - a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell that produces hormones - so neurotransmitters play a key role in everything you do, feel, and think. Neurotransmitters govern important brain systems that control your cognition, emotions, and motivation. When neurotransmitters carry a neuronal signal to a target cell, it’s called anterograde signaling.
The dried flowers and leaves of the female cannabis plant. This the most widely consumed form of cannabis.
Isolated CBD oil is made from natural CBD which is derived from either cannabis or hemp plants. The oil does not contain terpenes or other cannabinoids. It has no smell and no taste, and it’s completely THC-free.
For centuries, hemp has been the raw material for hundreds of products, like ropes, fabrics, bricks, fuel, and more. Hemp is a type of cannabis plant that has high concentrations of medically-helpful CBD, and very low concentrations of THC - under 0.3% - which is what makes cannabis a psychoactive drug. Because hemp contains such a low percentage of THC, it’s legal to grow, process, and sell it in most countries.   Most CBD oils on the market are derived from hemp, because the CBD oil it produces is identical to that made from marijuana, but without the high levels of intoxicating THC.
Gaba-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that’s found in every type of animal and plant. GABA is derived from glutamate amino acid. In humans and most animals, GABA is a neurotransmitter to inhibitory synapses in the brain.   Low levels of GABA can lead to a sense of anxiety, so many anti-anxiety medications work by increasing GABA. GABA cannabinoids encourage the release of more GABA, increasing the soothing effect on the nervous system.
Also known as Vitamin P, flavonoids and bioflavonoids are compounds found in fruits and vegetables, including in cannabis. Flavonoids are responsible for the colour of some plants and help them to repel parasites and fungus, and attract symbiotic bacteria.
Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down ACE and AG-2, endocannabinoids. CBD inhibits the release of FAAH, which helps increase the activity of ACE and AG-2 to carry soothing cannabinoids around the endocannabinoid system.
Your endocannabinoid system covers your entire body, affecting many of your biological and chemical processes. The main role of the endocannabinoid system is to regulate the balance of the body, known as homeostasis, so that all your physical systems work as they should.   Endocannabinoids are fatty acids that bind to the membranes of different cells through endocannabinoid receptors. The best-known endocannabinoids are Anandamide (ACE) and Arachidonoyl Glycerol (AG-2).   Your body has two main endocannabinoid receptor sites:  
  • CB1 (central), found in the brain and nervous system
  • CB2 (peripheral), found mainly in the peripheral and immune cells
  Cannabis works because it interacts with the endocannabinoid system. THC binds onto CB1 and CB2 receptors throughout the body, but CBD works throughout the body. CBD can block some of the effects of THC. It also inhibits the activity of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme, which breaks down ACE and AG-2. By inhibiting FAAH, CBD increases the pain relief provided by ACE and AG-2 through the endocannabinoid receptors.
The phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant begins as cannabinoid acid. In order to turn them into cannabinoids that can be processed by the human body, they need to go through a process of decarboxylation. This involves heating the cannabis in order to release carbon dioxide and remove the carboxylic acid. Decarboxylation turns cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) into cannabidiol (CBD), and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Hemp and marijuana are chemovars, or chemical variants, of the cannabis plant. Genetic research has proven that they are both from the same species of cannabis, but they produce different concentrations of chemicals. Hemp is characterized by higher levels of CBD and low levels of THC, while marijuana is the opposite.
Cannabis seeds are protein-rich and highly nutritious. They don’t have any psychoactive effect and make a healthy food for both humans and animals.
Cannabis flowers, or buds, hold the main active ingredients of cannabis. Scientists identified three main types of chemical compounds in cannabis flowers that underpin the effects of cannabis on the body:  
  • Cannabinoids
  • Terpenes
  • Flavonoids
Cannabis is a bushy, fast-growing plant from the Cannabaceae family. Since the dawn of history, the leaves have been used to make fibers and ropes, the seeds pressed for oil, and the flowers to make a medical and/or recreational drug. Cannabis plants are the source of a number of important chemical compounds, including cannabidiol (CBD), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabinol (CBN), is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid. It’s produced in small quantities in the cannabis plant, as a by-product of THC, but it occurs most often when cannabis is inappropriately stored. In cannabis that is exposed to free air and sunlight, THCA (the original form of THC) tends to turn into CBNA (the original form of CBN).   CBN has a partial effect on the CB1 receptor system, but it binds much more closely to CB2 receptors. Compared with THC, CBN is far less active in binding with the endocannabinoid system.
Cannabinoids are chemical substances that affect your mood, perception of pain, and various other experiences. The human body naturally generates endocannabinoids, which are fatty acids that bind to the membranes of different cells through endocannabinoid receptors. The best-known endocannabinoids are Anandamide (ACE) and Arachidonoyl Glycerol (AG-2).   Your body has two main endocannabinoid receptor sites:  
  • CB1 (central), found in the brain and nervous system
  • CB2 (peripheral), found mainly in the peripheral and immune cells
  There are also:  
  • Phytocannabinoids, which are cannabinoids that occur naturally in the cannabis plant
  • Synthetic cannabinoids, which are created in a lab
  Both phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids also bind with CB1 and CB2 receptors.   To date, scientists have identified 165 different phytocannabinoids (phyto=plant), which are extracted from cannabis blossoms. The three main phytocannabinoids are:  
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol - THC
  • Cannabidiol- CBD
  • Cannabinol - CBN
CBD, or cannabidiol, is a phytocannabinoid. CBD is produced through decarboxylation - the release of carbon dioxide from cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).   CBD operates through a number of mechanisms throughout the body, rather than binding to the CB1 or CB2 receptors as previously thought. CBD is psychoactive, but it’s not intoxicating, so it doesn’t make you feel high. CBD is the second major component of cannabis, and its use is becoming legal in many countries around the world.
Anandamide (ACE) is a neurotransmitter that helps govern feelings of happiness and joy. It’s an endocannabinoid that connects to CB1 and CB2 receptors, and it can be affected by CBD and THC.
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